Being introduced to some very useful information about the processes in which we engage to solve problems, reason, and make important (and not so important) decisions. Several methods and strategies were explained in our reading and now we will take the time to put some of the information to use!
Click the link below to get to the game for this discussion forum; you will be relatively familiar with it, some more than others.
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Rules to the game are available on the website for those needing additional instructions. While playing the game, be sure to keep note of your steps, the processes in which you are engaging throughout the game, and why.
- After completing the game, it should only take about 5 to 7 minutes to play, discuss your processes throughout the selection and decision-making steps of the game.
- Discuss the influence of reasoning, risk-taking, framing, emotions, mental models, and other processes and factors in the decision-making process on your final decision to make a deal or not make a deal.
- Identify and explain the problem-solving and decision-making models you feel you used while navigating the game and how these may have been improved upon reflection of the activity.
PLEASE USE REFERENCE AND INFORMATION BELOW STATED FOR ADDITIONAL ASSISTANCE;
PLEASE USE REFERENCES LISTED ALSO FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:
Handbook of Psychology, Volume 1: History of Psychology. New York: Wiley
NO GRAMMAR ISSUES/NO ERRORS
2-3 CREDIBLE SCHOLARLY SOURCES
PLEASE WRITE IN OWN WORDS/SUMMARIZING!!!!!!!!!!
PLEASE NO IN TEXT CITATIONS!!!!!!!!!!!
Problem-solving is an activity we perform multiple times throughout a given day. Problems are defined as an obstacle or challenge between a present state and a goal for which the resolution of the obstacle or challenge is not readily known.
Problem-Solving (((TWO TYPES OF PROBLEMS)))
A well-defined problem will have a correct answer, specific procedures and when applied appropriately will result in a resolution.
An ill-defined problem lacks a correct resolution or the resolution is unclear.
Gestalt psychology was introduced by Christian von Ehrenfels who focused on problem-solving during the 1920’s. In addition to interest in perception, Gestalt psychology was concerned about learning, problem-solving, attitudes, and beliefs. The Gestalt approach to problem-solving dealt with how a person represented a problem, in his/her mind and how solving the problem encompassed a reorganization or restructuring of the representation (Boeree, 2000). The Gestalt approach argues achieving a successful resolution to a problem is contingent on how it is represented in a person’s mind. It may be necessary to change the problem’s representation to solve the problem by restructuring. Insight is associated with restructuring, which occurs when a person suddenly realizes how to successfully resolve the problem (Boeree, 2000).
Binet states the psychology of reasoning helps one to examine how people reason; the process of drawing conclusions in how people solve problems and make decisions (2007). Reasoning is comprised of not just psychology, but also philosophy, linguistics, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, logic, and probability theory. Throughout this lesson, you should think about various questions about intellect, judgment, aptitude, perception, development, and associations connecting sensation and reasoning. Reasoning is applied in a different context depending on the situation.
Taking a more in-depth look at reasoning, let’s focus on deductive and inductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning uses common principles to reach a specific conclusion (Bradford, 2017). The conclusions convey the statement or suggestion is true. Deductive reasoning pertains to a particular circumstance.
Inductive reasoning explores a probable hypothesis by means of observations (Bradford, 2017). Inductive reasoning does not stem from principles that deliver a conclusion. Premises in inductive reasoning normally are established on evidence or examinations. It is important to understand that inductive reasoning is developing a hypothesis, devising philosophies and establishing connections, and it is imperative for a systematic breakthrough.
After reviewing the information about reasoning, how do you analyze your thought process? Think about ways in which you apply inductive and deductive reasoning. Which method do you tend to utilize the most and why?
COMPONENTS OF REASONING
Logic depends on the type of contention. Logics stem from philosophy and are a form of deductive or inductive reasoning. Syllogism is the most common form of logic as it coincides with a disagreement with the principle, an insignificant principle, and the decision.
Scientific reasoning is constructed on examination, expectation, investigation, and replication. A phenomenon is identified, a hypothesis is designed, and the experiments are executed to prove or refute the hypothesis, and then this process is repeated. Some of the most common forms of testing this scientific reasoning are: reliability, accountability, and duplicate.
Visual/Aural Proof is observing methods of reasoning that are critical to delivering proof. Proof of both visual and aural forms increase as the importance of digital media and duplication develops.
Specific instances normally depend upon deductive reasoning, moving from basic principles that are believed to be true to particular assumptions. Generally speaking, arguments are inductive reasoning, not deductive reasoning.
Decision making occurs in many ways; often, it is assumed that the individual faced with a decision has access to all necessary information. As we know, this is not always the case! However, in research settings, this position is assumed. Dr. Gerd Gigerenzer, a leader in human decision-making research, provides us with excellent insights into the decision-making process as he has discovered it in his research.
See Dr. Gigerenzer’s innovative approach to researching the human decision-making process! The following link includes video chapters to:
- What is decision making?
- Ecological rationality
- Heuristics in decision making
- Real-world applications
Perkovic and Orquin (2017) provide a real-world view of ecological rationality at play as they examine how people use previously learned cues in the decision-making process. Consider how various reasoning and decision-making models and methods are used in our daily decisions.
Problem-solving is a complex cognitive process involving creativity, memory, perception, reasoning and decision making. It is unique in that it requires us to envision a different reality and to weigh the merits of different ways of approaching a problem to result in a better outcome. One’s ability to be an effective problem solver in various contexts is often a measure of one’s success in relationships and careers.