1. In Parkinson disease (PD), the basal ganglia influences the hypothalamic function to produce which grouping of clinical manifestations?
Inappropriate diaphoresis, orthostatic hypotension, constipation, and urinary retention
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Asymmetric, regular, rhythmic tremors with slow alternating flexion and extension contractions
Involuntary contractions of skeletal muscles that impair active and passive movement
Bradykinesia of chewing, swallowing, and articulation
Question 2. Which is a characteristic of brainstem death?
Question 3. With receptive dysphasia (fluent), the individual is able to
respond in writing, but not in speech.
speak back, but not comprehend speech.
comprehend speech, but not respond verbally.
respond verbally, but not comprehend speech.
Question 4. The body compensates to a rise in intracranial pressure by first displacing
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Question 5. Dementia is characterized by
deficits in attention and coherence of thought.
easy distractibility and poor concentration.
loss of recent and remote memory.
irritability, agitation, and restlessness.
Question 6. Which dyskinesia involves involuntary movements of the face, trunk, and extremities?
Question 7. Vomiting is associated with CNS injuries that compress which anatomic location(s)?
Vestibular nuclei in the lower pons and medulla oblongata
Floor of the third ventricle
Vestibular nuclei in the midbrain
Question 8. Cognitive operations cannot occur without the _____ functioning.
reticular activating system
Question 9. What are the initial clinical manifestations noted immediately after a spinal cord injury?
Headache, bradycardia, and elevated blood pressure
Confusion, irritability, and retrograde amnesia
Loss of deep tendon reflexes and flaccid paralysis
Hypertension, neurogenic shock, and tachycardia
Question 10. Which clinical manifestation is characteristic of cluster headaches?
Aura before the headache with photophobia and nausea and vomiting
Severe unilateral tearing, burning, or temporal pain
Gradual onset of bilateral pain with sensation of a tight band around the head
Throbbing headache with intermittent burning sensation
Question 11. A man who sustained a cervical spinal cord injury 2 days ago suddenly develops severe hypertension and bradycardia. He reports severe head pain and blurred vision. The most likely explanation for these clinical manifestations is that he is
experiencing acute anxiety.
developing spinal shock.
developing autonomic hyperreflexia.
experiencing parasympathetic areflexia.
Question 12. The most severe diffuse brain injury caused by rotational acceleration is most likely to be located in the
diencephalon to the brainstem.
medial portion of the brainstem.
Question 13. Which neurotransmitter is reduced in people with schizophrenia?
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
Question 14. Which is a positive symptom of schizophrenia?
Poverty of speech
Lack of social interaction
Question 15. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system abnormalities exist in a large percentage of individuals with
Question 16. The life-threatening problems associated with myelomeningocele include
upward displacement of the cerebellum into the diencephalon.
motor and sensory lesions below the level of the myelomeningocele.
downward displacement of the cerebellum, brainstem, and fourth ventricle.
encephalitis causing generalized cerebral edema and hydrocephalus.
Question 17. The neural groove closes dorsally during the _____ week of gestational life.
Question 18. Anterior midline defects of neural tube closure cause developmental defects in the
brain and skull.
Question 19. Which statement is false regarding the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis?
Pancreatic acinar cells metabolize ethanol, which generates toxic metabolites.
Injury to the pancreatic acinar cells permits leakage of pancreatic enzymes that digest pancreatic tissue.
Acute pancreatitis is an autoimmune disease in which IgG coats the pancreatic acinar cells so they are destroyed by the pancreatic enzymes.
When gallstones are present, bile flows into the pancreas, contributing to attacks.
Question 20. The desire to eat is stimulated by
agouti-related protein (AgRP).
alpha-melanocyte–stimulating hormone (?-MSH).
cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART).
peptide YY (PYY).
Question 21. The most common manifestation of portal hypertension induced splenomegaly is
Question 22. Incomplete fusion of the nasomedial or intermaxillary process during the fourth week of embryonic development causes
Question 23. At 2 or 3 weeks of age, an infant who has been fed well and gained weight begins to vomit for no apparent reason. The vomiting has gradually become more forceful. These symptoms may be indicative of which disorder?
Congenital aganglionic megacolon
Question 24. Hepatitis _____ in children is primarily associated with blood transfusions.
Question 25. Meconium _____ is an intestinal obstruction caused by meconium formed in utero that is abnormally sticky and adheres firmly to the mucosa of the small intestine.